Developmental Exposure to Chemicals associated with Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction alters Immune Homeostasis and Viral Immunity of the Amphibian Xenopus

Our data provide strong evidence that at concentrations well below or at the level found in water where UOG activity occurs Energy Information Administration, 2016 Kassotis et al., 2016c ), a mixture of UOG chemicals can induce alterations of the immune system that persists for a long time after exposure. Thus, early life exposure  leads to change in adulthood that include weakened host resistance to viral pathogens. These results are relevant and raise concern for aquatic vertebrates near UOG sites or downstream from UOG waste water spills. However, owing to the conservation of the immune system across all jawed vertebrates these findings also clearly pertain to human health”