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A summary of the full study..
“Approximately 20 people in Pennsylvania lost their lives during a seven-year period because of particulate matter pollution emitted by shale gas wells, according to a recent study.
The researchers —including lead author Ruohao Zhang, a Binghamton University graduate student who specializes in environmental economics
(https://binghamton.edu/economics/), and Professor of Economics Neha Khanna (https://www.binghamton.edu/economics/faculty/prole.html?id=nkhanna) — used NASA satellite data to pinpoint daily levels of particulate matter pollution from hydraulically fractured gas wells throughout Pennsylvania, the largest producer of shale gas in the United States.”
I only have the abstract here but will try and get the full article…
– A high prevalence of dysphagia (milk aspiration) in neonatal foals born near UGND occurred.
– Continuous passive sampling of well water demonstrated high concentrations of PAHs.
– Installation of a water filtration/treatment system eliminated the neurodevelopmental defect.
– Horses are sentinels of health risks in areas of natural resource mining”
● First-of-a-kind assessment of the global economic cost of air pollution from fossil fuels,
building on recent advances in research on the contribution of fossil fuel burning to air
pollutant levels around the world and the health impacts of air pollution.
● The economic costs of air pollution from fossil fuels are estimated at US$2.9 trillion in
2018, or 3.3% of global GDP, far exceeding the likely costs of rapid reductions in fossil fuel
● An estimated 4.5 million people died in 2018 due to exposure to air pollution from fossil
fuels. On average, each death was associated with a loss of 19 years of life.
● Fossil fuel PM2.5 pollution was responsible for 1.8 billion days of work absence, 4 million
new cases of child asthma and 2 million preterm births, among other health impacts that
affect healthcare costs, economic productivity and welfare.”
“This paper estimates the impact of shale gas development on local particulate matter pollution by exploiting a quasi-experimental setting in Pennsylvania where some wells experienced pre-production and/or production activities whereas some others were permitted but not spud between 2000 – 2018. We measure local PM pollution using daily aerosol optical depth (AOD) over a 3 kilometers circular area around every shale gas well.
Using a spatial difference-in-differences model, we find that both shale gas pre-production and production activities increase daily AOD significantly, by 1.35% – 2.19% relative to the baseline. The effect of pre-production is slightly larger than production activities, but both effects attenuate with distance from the centroid well. Accounting for airborne spillovers, fracking increases AOD by 1.27% – 5.67%, which translates to 0.017µg/m3–0.062µg/m3
increase in PM 2.5 concentration. This increase in PM 2.5 is associated with 20.11 additional deaths.”
“The continued rise in the extraction of unconventional oil and gas across the globe poses many questions about how to manage these relatively new waste-streams. Produced water, the primary waste by-product, contains a diverse number of anthropogenic additives together with the numerous hydrocarbons extracted from the well. Due to potential environmental hazards, it is critical to characterize the chemical composition of this type of waste before proper disposal or remediation/reuse.
In this work, a thin film solid phase microextraction approach was developed and optimized to characterize produced water. The thin film device consisted of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance particles embedded in polydimethylsiloxane and immobilized on a carbon mesh surface. These devices were chosen to provide broad extraction coverage and high reusability. Various parameters were evaluated to ensure reproducible results while minimizing analyte loss.
This optimized protocol, consisting of a 15 min extraction followed by a short (3 s) rinsing step, enabled the reproducible analysis of produced water without any sample pretreatment. Extraction efficiency was suitable for both produced water additives and hydrocarbons. The developed approach was able to tentatively identify a total of 201 compounds from produced water samples, by using one-dimensional gas chromatography hyphenated
to mass spectrometry and data deconvolution.”